- Aboveground crossing
- is a pipeline facilities complex for pipe laying through natural or manmade obstructions (ravines, minor rivers with steep shores, canals and irrigation ditches, mountain walker rivers, mine openings, landslides, permafrost soils, motorways and railroads, etc.). According to their types of construction, there exist the following aboveground crossings: arch pipelines, braced pipeline crossings, suspended pipelines, submerged pipeline crossings, upper-header pipelines. Aboveground crossings are made of metal, reinforced concrete, wood; they may be single- or multi-span, with saddles constructed depending on local conditions, stressing, construction technology, and other factors. General trends in aboveground crossings construction are as follows: structure weight-saving, working out the easiest assembling and prefabrication techniques based on unification of most commonly used systems.
Glossary of Oil and Gas. 2013.
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